Research

Research and Publications Produced Through Project REDD

Ducy, E. M., &; Stough, L. M. (2021). Psychological effects of the 2017 California wildfires on children and youth with disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103981.

In this study the authors call for increased attention to disaster planning, as well as for improvements to disaster preparedness and response efforts. There is a need for additional studies on disaster impacts for children with developmental disabilities

 

Montague, M. L., Sweet, K. S., Stough, L. M., Sharp, A. N., & Miracle, I. (accepted for publication). Disaster recovery resource and service databases. Journal of Emergency Management.

Emergency preparedness managers and voluntary organizations rely on resource directories to design disaster planning and recovery planning strategies. This article describes an approach used to swiftly create and maintain an online resource directory for individuals with disabilities following Hurricane Harvey.

 

Ducy, E. M., & Stough, L. M. (2021). Educational experiences of children and youth with disabilities impacted by wildfires. Disaster Prevention and Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103981

Findings from this study suggest families of children with disabilities experience distinct post-disaster effects. Schools should assist families so students with disabilities experience a more equitable return to educational services post-disaster.

 

Stough, L. M., Ducy, E. M., Kang, D., & Lee, S. (2020). School safety and students with disabilities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 45, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101447

In this systematic examination of studies that have investigated the impact of disasters on schools and children with disabilities, Stough et al. (2020) argue for greater inclusion of students with disabilities in disaster planning and emergency preparedness.

 

Stough, L. M. & Ducy. E. M. (2019). Evacuating under fire: Children with special healthcare needs in disaster. Research Counts. Boulder, CO:  Natural Hazards Center. https://hazards.colorado.edu/news/research-counts/special-collection/evacuating-under-fire-children-with-special-healthcare-needs-in-disaster

This article includes recommendations for disaster planning, emergency preparedness, and evacuation planning for children with disabilities.

 

Stough, L. M., & Kelman, I. (2018). People with disabilities and disasters. In H. Rodriguez, J. Trainor, & W. Donner (Eds.), Handbook of disaster research (2nd ed. pp. 225-242). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-63254-4_12

This chapter reviews research on disability and disaster across academic disciplines with different epistemological assumptions. The authors argue there is not a coherent theory of the impact of disaster on disability and that people with disabilities should be accepted as active participants in disaster planning and preparedness.

 

Stough, L. M., & North, C. S. (2018). The association of adverse mental health effects with repeated exposure to disasters. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 30(1), 17-24. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29373614/

This study investigated the mental health effects of repeated disaster exposure. Findings suggest that alcohol use disorder—the most prevalent post-disaster psychopathology—may be more representative of a risk factor for, rather than an impact of, exposure to repeated disaster.

 

Stough, L. M., Ducy, E. M., & Holt, J. M. (2017). Changes in the social relationships of individuals with disabilities displaced by disaster. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 24, 474-481. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.06.020

Findings of this study on disaster recovery found quality of life for people with disabilities diminished post-disaster due to the loss of social networks and belongingness, rather than to a diminishment in instrumental support.

 

Stough, L. M., Ducy, E. M., & Kang, D. (2017). Addressing the needs of children with disabilities experiencing disaster or terrorism. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19(24), 1-10. doi:10.1007/s11920-017-0776-8

In this review, findings suggest emergency preparedness interventions and societal changes are needed to decrease the disproportionate environmental and social impacts of disaster on children with disabilities.

 

Stough, L. M. (2017). What comes after Hurricane Harvey for people with disabilities? Restoring, recovering, and rebuilding. Research Counts. Boulder, CO:  Natural Hazards Center. https://hazards.colorado.edu/news/research-counts/what-comes-after-hurricane-harvey-for-people-with-disabilities-restoring-recovering-and-rebuilding

After discussing the compounding impacts of disaster on people with disabilities, the author suggests disaster recovery for people with disabilities should include restoring disability-related resources and services, improving access to these resources and services, and rebuilding for accessibility and inclusion that incorporates disability concerns in emergency preparedness efforts.

 

Stough, L. M., Sharp, A. N., Resch, J. A., Decker, C., & Wilker, N. (2016). Barriers to the long term recovery of individuals with disabilities following disaster. Disasters, 40(3), 387-410. https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.12161

This study examines how pre-existing disabling conditions influenced the recovery process of survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Findings indicate the recovery of individuals with disabilities was hindered when disaster planning and recovery services and resources did not accommodate disability-related support needs.

 

Phillips, B. K., & Stough, L. M. (2016). Populations with functional or access needs. In K. Koenig, & C. Schultz, (Eds.), Disaster Medicine: Comprehensive Principles and Practices (2nd ed. pp. 137-162). Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139629317.013

Whether involved with public education, emergency response, long-term recovery, or risk reduction, the medical community can support efforts to aid populations with functional or access needs.

 

Stough, L.M., & Kang, D. (2016). Disability and disaster: Explorations and exchanges, Texas Disability Integration Newsletter, 2(3), 2-3. https://vivo.library.tamu.edu/vivo/display/n183068SE

In these first-hand narratives, authors with disabilities describe agency and self-resilience during disaster.

 

Stough, L. M., & Kang, D. (2016). The Sendai Agreement and disaster risk reduction: Conceptual influences from the field of disability studies. Natural Hazards Observer, 40(5), 4-9. https://hazards.colorado.edu/article/the-sendai-agreement-and-disaster-risk-reduction-conceptual-influences-from-the-field-of-disability-studies

The Sendai Framework includes three concepts theoretically grounded in disability studies: universal design, inclusion, and accessibility. These concepts have applicable value for the disaster planning and preparedness community seeking to reduce the impacts of disaster on people with disabilities.

 

Stough, L. M., Sharp, A. N., Resch, A., Decker, C., & Wilker, N. (2015). Barriers to the long-term recovery of individuals with disabilities following disaster. Disasters, 40(3), https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.1216

This study found the following themes had the most significant impact on disaster recovery for people with disabilities: housing; transportation; employment; physical and mental health; and accessing recovery services. The research results suggest that disability status enhanced the challenges that participants experienced in negotiating the recovery process and in acquiring resources that accommodated their disabilities.

 

Kelman, I., & Stough, L. M. (2015). Introduction. In Major Hazards and People with Disabilities Toolkit. Council of Europe: Author. https://rm.coe.int/1680467003

This toolkit and the work represented in it exists to challenge preconceptions that disability necessarily means a limitation of ability and hazards such as earthquakes, storms and landslides must inevitably cause disasters.

 

Stough, L. M., & Kelman, I. (2015). Exploring and exchanging (dis)ability and (dis)aster. In I. Kelman, & L. Stough (Eds.), Disaster and disability: Exchanges and explorations (pp. 175-186). New York: Palgrave/MacMillan. doi:10.1057/9781137486004_25

In response to a literature gap examining the impact of disaster on people with disabilities in which people with disabilities themselves are involved, Stough and Kelman (2015) offer contextual narratives by and with people with disabilities.

 

Kelman, I., & Stough, L. M., & (2015). (Dis)ability and (dis)aster. In I. Kelman, & L. Stough (Eds.), Disaster and Disability: Exchanges and Explorations (pp. 3-14). New York: Palgrave/MacMillan. doi:10.1057/9781137486004_1

This chapter examines how emergency preparedness procedures, infrastructure, etc. are constructed for people without disabilities and how this impacts and marginalizes people with disabilities in the context of disasters.

 

Kelman, I., & Stough, L. M. (Eds.). (2015). Disability and disaster: Exchanges and explorations. New York: Palgrave/MacMillan Press. doi.org/10.1057/9781137486004

This book adds disaster research to the expanding area of disability studies. The book includes writings by international scholars and first-hand narratives from individuals with disabilities impacted by disasters around the globe.

 

Stough, L. M., & Kang, D. (2015). The Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction and persons with disabilities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(2), 140-149. doi:10.1007/s13753-015-0051-8

In this paper, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR) is evaluated with respect to its ramifications for persons with disabilities. The authors argue the introduction of disability-related concepts firmly establishes people with disabilities and their advocacy organizations as legitimate stakeholders and actors in the design and implementation of international disaster risk reduction policies.

 

Stough, L. M. (2015). World Report on Disability, intellectual disabilities, and disaster preparedness: Costa Rica as a case example. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 12(2). doi:10.1111/jppi.12116

People with intellectual disabilities are more likely to need additional assistance during evacuation, experience more tangible losses during disaster, and require more intensive support in the recovery phase following disaster. Costa Rica is used as an example of policy structures and legislative supports that could reduce impacts of disaster on people with disabilities.

 

Stough, L. M., & McAdams Ducy, E. (2014). Disaster and disabilities. In C. R. Reynolds, K. J. Vannest, & E. Fletcher-Janzen, (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Special Education (4th ed. pp. 852-854). New York: John Wiley & Son. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/174802

This encyclopedia entry explains the disproportionate impact of disaster on people with disabilities.

 

Stough, L. M., & Mayhorn, C. (2013). Population segments with disabilities. Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 31(3), 384-402. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153151

This article uses findings from research on the impact of disaster on elderly populations to extrapolate the impact of disaster on people with disabilities.

 

Ducy, E. M., Stough, L. M., & Clark, M. C. (2012). Choosing agency in the midst of vulnerability: Using critical disability theory to examine a disaster narrative. In S. Steinberg and G. Canella (Eds.), Critical qualitative research reader (pp. 307-317). New York: Peter Lang. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153540

This chapter uses critical disability theory to understand the impact of disaster on people with disabilities and how societal factors predispose people with disabilities to disaster risk.

 

Stough, L. M., & Peek, L. (2012). Children with disabilities in disaster. In B. Wisner, J. C. Gaillard, and I. Kelman (Eds.), Handbook of hazards, disaster risk reduction, and management (pp. 415-416). New York: Routledge. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153541

Children with disabilities are particularly apt to be poorly served in disaster, although they make up a substantial minority of any childhood population in both developed and developing countries.

 

McAdams Ducy, E., & Stough, L. M. (2011). Exploring the support role of special education teachers after Hurricane Ike: Children with significant disabilities. Journal of Family Issues, 32, 1325-1345. doi:10.1177/0192513X11412494

This study explored the role of special education teachers of children with significant disabilities during Hurricane Ike. Recommendations are that teachers receive emergency preparedness training on the needs of students with significant disabilities during disaster.

 

Stough, L. M. (2011). Disaster case management: Disaster case management and individuals with disabilities following Hurricane Katrina. Brain Injury Professional, 6(4), 18-21. doi:10.1037/a0020079

Disaster case management needs of individuals with disabilities, as well as the long-term recovery process two years following Hurricane Katrina, are examined. Results suggest that recovery from disaster for people with disabilities is facilitated by case managers with disability expertise.

 

Stough, L. M., &; Kailes, J. I. (2010). Disabilities and disaster. In K. Penuel, &; M. Statler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief (pp. 109-110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153542

Highlighted is the disproportionately negative impact of disaster on people with disabilities, including the lack of emergency preparedness strategies and disaster planning focusing on people with disabilities.

 

Peek, L., & Stough, L. M. (2010). Children with disabilities in the context of disaster: A social vulnerability perspective. Child Development, 81(4), 1260-1270.  doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01466.x

This critical review extrapolates from literatures on the impact of disaster on individuals with disabilities and on the impact of disaster on children to fill the research gap on the impact of disaster on children with disabilities.

 

Stough, L. M., Sharp, A. N., Decker, C., & Wilker, N. (2010). Disaster case management and individuals with disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55(3), 211-220. doi:10.1037/a0020079

This study examines the disaster case management needs and long-term recovery process of people with disabilities two years following the Hurricane Katrina disaster. Findings suggest the disaster recovery process is typically more complex and lengthy for individuals with disabilities, requiring negotiation of a service system sometimes unprepared for disability-related needs.

 

Stough, L. M., Villarreal, E., & Castillo, L. G. (2010). Disaster and social vulnerability: The case of undocumented Mexican migrant workers. In J. D. Rivera and D. S. Miller (Eds.), Minority resiliency and the legacy of disaster (pp. 297-315). New York: Edwin Mellen.
https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/153543/Disaster%20and%20social%20vulnerability-The%20case%20of%20undocumented%20Mexican%20migrant%20workers.pdf?sequence=1

This chapter argues undocumented immigrants in the United States are at disproportionate risk for being affected by disaster and for difficulties during the response and relief phases of disaster.

 

Stough, L. M. (2009). The effects of disaster on the mental health of individuals with disabilities. In Y. Neria, S. Galea, & F. H. Norris (Eds.), Mental health and disasters. (pp. 264-276). New York: Cambridge University. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511730030.015.

This chapter reviews studies that have systematically studied the impact of disaster on individuals with disabilities and contribute to our understanding of the psychological impact of disaster on this population.

Other Research and Publications from Dr. Stough

Hwang, J., Li, W., Stough, L. M., Lee, C., & Turnbull, K. (2020). People with disabilities’ perceptions of autonomous vehicles as a viable transportation option to improve mobility: An exploratory study using mixed methods. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2020.1833115

Hwang, J., Li, W., Stough, L. M., Lee, C., & Turnbull, K. (2020). A focus group on the potential of autonomous vehicles as a viable transportation option: Perspectives from people with disabilities and public transit agencies. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behavior, 70, 260-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2020.03.007

Sweet, K., LeBlanc, J., Stough, L. M., & Sweany, N. (2019). Community building and knowledge sharing by individual with disabilities using social media. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 1-11. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12377

Ducy, E. M., & Stough, L. M. (2018). Teacher perspectives on grief among children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Loss and Trauma. doi:10.1080/15325024.2018.1434859

Kaya, F., Stough, L., & Juntune, J. (2016). Verbal and nonverbal intelligence scores within the context of poverty. Gifted Education International, 1-16. doi:10.1177/0261429416640332

Kaya, F., Stough, L. M, & Juntune, J. (2016). The effect of poverty on the verbal scores of gifted students. Educational Studies. doi:10.1080/03055698.2016.1148585

Kaya, F., Juntune, J., & Stough, L. (2015). Intelligence and its relationship to achievement. Elementary Education Online, 14(3), 1060-1078. doi.org/10.17051/io.2015.25436

Moltó, C. C., Florian, L., Rouse, M., & Stough, L. M. (2010). Attitudes to diversity: A cross-cultural study of education students in Spain, England, and the United States. European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), 245-264. doi:10.1080/02619768.2010.495771

Herzberg, T. S., & Stough, L. M. (2009). The quality of brailled instructional materials produced in Texas public schools. Journal of Visual Impairments and Blindness, 103(10), 722-733. doi:10.1177/0145482X0910301015

Cannella, G. S., Collins, D. R., & Stough, L. M. (2009). Ongoing work of scholars of the critical childhood collaborative. National Forum of Multicultural Issues Journal, 7(2), 14-17.

Cifuentes, L., Sharp, A. N., Bulu, S., Benz, M., & Stough, L. M. (2009). Developing a Web 2.0-based system with user-authored content for community use and teacher education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(4), 377-398.  doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9141-x

Herzberg, T. S., & Stough, L. M. (2007). The production of brailled instructional materials in Texas public schools. Journal of Visual Impairments and Blindness, 101(8), 465-478. doi:10.1177/0145482X0710100803

Palmer, D. J., & Stough, L. M. (2005). Identifying teacher expertise: An examination of researchers’ decision-making, Educational Psychologist, 40(1), 13-25. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4001_2

Herzberg, T. S., Stough, L. M., & Clark, C. M. (2004). Teaching and assessing the appropriateness of uncontracted Braille, Journal of Visual Impairments and Blindness, 98(12), 773-779. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482×0409801204

Stough, L. M., & Palmer, D. J (2003). Special thinking in special settings: A qualitative study of expert special educators. The Journal of Special Education, 36(4) 206-222.  doi:10.1177/002246690303600402

Stough, L. M. (2003). Special education and severe disabilities in Costa Rica: Developing inclusion in a developing country. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 28(1), 7-15.  doi:10.2511/rpsd.28.1.7

Evans, R. A., & Stough, L. M. (2002). Self-injurious behaviors: Suggested functions and interventions. Beyond Behavior, 12(1), 3-7.

Stough, L. M. (2002). Teaching special education in Costa Rica. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 34(5), 34-39. doi:10.1177/004005990203400506

Roberts, C. D., Stough, L. M., & Parrish, L. H. (2002). The role of genetic counseling in the elective termination of pregnancies involving fetuses with disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 48-55. doi:10.1177/00224669020360010501

Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology and teacher education. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 103-112.  doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3602_5

McCarthy, M. G., & Stough, L. M. (1999). The qualifying game: A search for services by individuals with disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 34(4), 485-498. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23889046

Stough, L. M. & Baker, L. (1999). Identifying depression in students with mental retardation. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 31(4), 62-66. doi:10.1177/004005999903100411

Stough, L. M., & Emmer, E. T. (1998). Teachers’ emotions and test feedback. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(2), 341-361. doi:10.1080/095183998236809

Algert, N. E., & Stough, L. M. (1998). Advocacy: The power within. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 20(2), 26-32.

Stough, L. M., & Aguirre-Roy, A. R. (1997). Learning disabilities in Costa Rica: Challenges for “an army of teachers.” Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(5), 566-571. doi:10.1177/002221949703000513

Recent Presentations

Invited Presentations

Stough, L. M., & Sharp, A. N. (2020, September). The long-term disaster recovery toolkit for individuals with disabilities. Invited webinar presentation for the Texas Governor’s Committee on Persons with Disabilities. Austin, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2020, September). Disaster preparedness and children with disabilities. Invited webinar presentation for the Texas Department of State Health Services. Austin, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2020, July). Impact of disasters on children with complex and special needs. Invited panelist for the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. From Hurricane Katrina to Paradise Wildfires, Exploring Themes in Disaster Human Services. Washington, DC.

Stough, L. M., & Montague, M. L. (2020, June). Needs of people with IDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Invited webinar presentation for the IDD Council of Tarrant County. Tarrant County, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2020, June). The Center on Disability and Development responds. Invited webinar presentation for the Association of Universities on Developmental Disabilities. AUCD town hall on COVID-19. Washington, DC.

Stough, L. M. (2020, May). COVID-19: Advice on your questions. Invited webinar presentation for the Association of Universities on Developmental Disabilities. COVID-19 Public Health Webinar Series: Session 4: Advice on Your Questions. Washington, DC.

Stough, L. M. (2020, April). CONVERGE virtual forum- COVID-19 working groups for public health and social sciences research. Invited webinar presentation for the Natural Hazards Center and the National Science Foundation. University of Colorado, CO.

Stough, L. M. (2020, April). COVID-19: Becoming part of the response. Invited webinar presentation for the Association of Universities on Developmental Disabilities. COVID-19 Public Health Webinar Series: Session 1: Advice from Medical Providers. Washington, DC.

Stough, L. M., Wolinsky, E., Harrison, T., & Sharp, A. N. (2020, April). COVID-19: Considerations for individuals with disabilities. Invited webinar presentation for the Texas Governor’s Committee on Persons with Disabilities. Austin, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2020, March). CONVERGE virtual forum- New and proposed research on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Natural Hazards Center and the National Science Foundation. University of Colorado, CO.

Stough, L. M. (2019, December). Designing the Mobile Tips for first responders on disabilities and other functional and access needs. Invited presentation at the Enhancing Response, Protecting Dignity:  Disability Tips and Tools for First Responders Conference. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Stough, L. M. (2019, October). Enhancing your skills in conducting qualitative studies: A dialogue with an expert panel. Invited presentation at the College of Education and Human Development at Texas A&M University.

Stough, L. M. (2019, September). Recovery after disasters and individuals with disabilities- What we know and what we do not. Invited presentation at the Americans with Disabilities Act Update Conference, Los Angeles, CA.

Stough, L. M. (2019, June). Recovery after disasters for individuals with disabilities. Invited presentation at the Creating Resiliency among Vulnerable Populations Conference, El Paso, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2019, May). Individuals with developmental disabilities and disasters. Invited presentation at the Metrocare Mental Health Services Conference, Richardson, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2019, April). Research on disasters and disability. Invited presentation at the Hazards Risk Reduction Center Fellows Forum at Texas A&M University.

Stough, L. M. (2018, April). Disability and disaster. Invited presentation at the annual Autism Conference at the Virgin Islands University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. University of the Virgin Islands.

Stough, L. M. (2016, November). Disaster and disability: Known and unknown. Invited presentation to the Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction. University College London, UK.

Stough, L. M., & Leal, D., & (2016, March). Person-first language: Addressing disability-related issues for public servants. Invited presentation to the Bush School for Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University.

Stough, L. M. (2016, March). The social and psychological effects of disaster on children and adults with disabilities. Invited presentation to the School of Public Health, Texas A&M University.

 

Refereed Conference Presentations     

Stough, L. M., Montague, M. L., & Miracle, I. (2021, February). School personnel as partners in disaster preparedness and recovery. Presented at the Texas Transition Conference. College Station, TX.

Montague, M. L., Stough, L. M., Sweet, K. S., & Miracle, I. (2021, February). The REDDy model for online disaster directory creation. Presented at the Disaster PRIMR 2021 Conference. College Station, TX.

Lynch, P. S., Sweet, K. S., Montague, M. L., Stough, L. M., & Sharp, A. (2020, February). Disaster preparedness and recovery for students with disabilities: The role of educators. Presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children. Portland, OR.

Sweet, K. S., Sharp, A. N., & Stough, L. M. (2019, November). ReDiscovery training and education on the needs of individuals with disabilities and access and functional needs following Hurricane Harvey. Poster presentation at the annual meeting of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities, Washington, D.C.

Stough, L. M. (2019, November). Listening to voices of the disability community recovering from disaster. Panel at the annual meeting of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities, Washington, D.C.

Lynch, P. S., Sweet, K. S., Montague, M. L., Stough, L. M., & Sharp, A. (2019, October). Disaster preparedness: Facilitating self-determination for evacuation and recovery for adolescents with disabilities. Presentation at the Division of Career Development and Transition Annual Conference, Council for Exceptional Children. Seattle, WA.

Stough, L. M., Sweet, Kayla S., & Montague, M. L. (2019, September). Resources for Disasters and Disability (REDDy) Directory providing independence and resilience post Hurricane Harvey. Presentation at the Resilience Rising: Research and Practice on Harvey and Hazards of the Future, College Station, TX.

Ducy, E.M., & Stough, L.M. (2019, July). Evacuating under fire: Children with disabilities and the 2017 Sonoma County fires. Presentation at the International Research Committee on Disasters Researchers Meeting, Broomfield, CO.

Ducy, E.M., Fishback, S., Stough, L.M. (2019, April). The Northern California wildfires: Perceptions from parents of children with disabilities. Poster presentation at the Sonoma State University Faculty & Graduate Symposium, Rohnert Park, CA.

Stough, L. M., & Sweet, K. S. (2019, April). Disability- and disaster-related tools for organizations at the local level. Presentation at the Texas Emergency Management Conference, San Antonio, TX.

Stough, L. M., Kang, D., & Ducy, E. M. (2018, November). Children with disabilities experiencing disaster or terrorism. Poster presentation at the annual meeting of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities, Washington, D.C.

Stough, L. M., Sharp, A. N., & Sweet, K. (2018, November). The REsources for Disasters and Disability (REDDy) Directory. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities, Washington, D.C.

Stough, L. M. & Sweet, K. (2018, November). Mobile tips for first responders – Responding to Hurricane Harvey. Poster at the annual meeting of the Texas Emergency Medical Services Conference, Fort Worth, TX.

Stough, L. M. (2018, July). The vulnerability of children in school-related disasters. Presentation at the International Research Committee on Disasters Researchers Meeting, Broomfield, CO.

Stough, L.M., Lee, S, & Kang, D. (2018, July). Seven school-related disasters. Poster presentation at the Natural Hazards Workshop, Broomfield, CO.

Stough, L. M., Kang, D. & Lee, S. (2018, February). Disasters in schools: Implications for teachers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Stough, L. M. (2017, November). Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria: Effects on people with disabilities. Presentation at the annual meeting of the American Association of University Centers on Disabilities, Washington, D.C.